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The adoption by low power managers of competitive rather than integrative strategies for negotiation may have contributed to the virtual absence of problem-solving by both parties, leading the authors to conclude that while "situational power may encourage the adoption of facilitative, problem-solving approaches & managers & do not necessarily do it effectively." This specific finding implies that more and better negotiation training is required within organizations, while the authors note that this has been long prescribed by scholars interested in management training.

This type of study helps set aside gender stereotypes in a managerial negotiation context. It also should strengthen female managers' confidence as negotiators who can obtain good outcomes for themselves while furthering the ends and strategies of their organizations.

Anthony Wanis-St.John is a consultant for ThoughtBridge (www.thoughtbridge.net), a consulting firm that mediates labor-management disputes, advises organizations on mergers and alliances, and provides negotiation training and facilitation services for corporate and non-profit clients. His negotiation consulting has helped executives, engineers, consultants, account representatives, and sales forces increase their negotiation skill while building working relationships inside and outside their organizations. He has taught negotiation skills at the Program of Instruction for Lawyers at Harvard Law School. Dr. Wanis-St. John wrote his Ph.D. thesis at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University on back channel negotiations between Israeli and Palestinian negotiators during the Oslo negotiations.

A previous version of this paper was published as "Managers as Negotiators: The Power and Gender Mix" Negotiation Journal, vol. 12, no. 4 (1996).

REFERENCES
Rahim, M. A. 1992. Managing conflict in organizations. Westport, CT: Praeger
Bazerman, M. and R. Lewicki, (eds.) 1983. Negotiating in organizations. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications
Davenport, T. H. (1995) "Business process reengineering: Its past, present and possible future." Harvard Business School Note 9-196-082
Hammer, M. and Champy, J. 1993. Reengineering the corporation. New York: HarperCollins
Lax, D. and J. Sebenius. 1986. The manager as negotiator: Bargaining for cooperation and competitive gain. New York: The Free Press

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